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Posted: 3/15/16
Dr. Schwandt is currently on a sabbatical from offering Greek courses and reading groups. We are currently working on a way to offer the educational materials without the live component.

Learning Greek

Online Greek Grammar Learning Tools and Study Aids

There are many sites and pages currently published on the web that can help with grammar and vocabulary learning. This page will provide links to explanatory grammatical pages and grammatical charts within our web site as well as links to other resources that may help you learn or review Biblical Greek grammar.

1. The Greek Alphabet & Pronunciation

2. Accenting

3. Vocabulary

4. Nouns

5. Pronouns

6. Prepositions

7. Verbs

8. English Grammar

9. Greek Grammar Sites

10. Teaching and Learning Greek Methods

11. Why Go for Fluency?

1. The Greek Alphabet and Pronunciation

The Greek alphabet is composed of beautiful letters that have stood the test of time. There are many sites that can help you learn the alphabet. Many of them have audio features so you can learn how to write and pronounce the alphabet. Bear in mind that there are a number of pronunciation systems. See our pronunciation page for a deeper explanation, history, and examples of the various pronunciation systems.

Greek Alphabet Pronunciation - This is our own page that provides a historical overview of the various pronunciation methods of Biblical Greek. You also can click on the letters to hear how they sound in each of the different methods.

IBG Alphabet Video - This movie demonstrates how to write and pronounce the Greek alphabet using the ethnic pronunciation system.

Alphabet (Grammar & Exercises) - This site provides PDF downloads of grammatical information as well as delightful exercises for study. However, the audio doesn't always function properly.

Little Greek Alphabet - Jonathan Robie has a great description of the Greek alphabet, mnemonics for learning the order of the alphabet and descriptions of pronunciation conventions. He also has audio helps for pronunciations. - This site has a brief description of the history of the Greek alphabet and has a number of charts including ancient and lost symbols. There is also a brief audio file.

Alphabet Chart - Just the written alphabet with the names of letters and the system for transliteration into English

Peurifoy's Alphabet Chart - A nice Erasmian alphabet chart

Ancient Symbols by location - This is a great chart showing how the early Greek alphabet varied by location.

2. Accenting

The current trend of most Biblical Greek grammars is to disregard accenting altogether. So it isn't surprising that there are many web pages devoted to teaching the rules for accentuation. We will put something together pretty soon.

Peurifoy's Accenting Rules - This is a PDF document that summarizes accenting rules.

Schwandt's Videos on How to Accent Greek Words - This is a link to a three part video (each video about 10 minutes) that teach you how to accent Biblical and ancient Greek words.

Berkeley Accentuation Tutorial - This site has a brief history of the development of the Greek accent and then a tutorial (in the sidebar) that teaches how to accent Ancient Greek. This site also has practice exercises.

3. Vocabulary

There are many sites and programs that offer tools and techniques for learning Greek vocabulary.

Web sites

IBG Vocabulary Frequency List - This page lists all of the words that occur over 100 times in the New Testament.

Perseus Classical Vocabulary Lists - You can create frequency lists for any text in Perseus. - Peter Coad, fellow student of Greek for life has developed this site for learning Greek vocabulary using creative mnemonic devices using Erasmian pronunciation.

Numbers List - Here is a nice quick reference for all of those number words.

Perseus Principal Part List - Smyth has a nice list of verbs with their principal parts arranged in alphabetical order.

Free Software

Anki - This is a free vocabulary quiz program for download. It works with any operating system and there are even smart phone app versions. It uses a formula for reviewing words over a dynamic period of time. You can download card sets and create your own. I have a card set for Athenaze vocabulary with audio and pictures. Let me know if you are interested in it.

FlashWorks - Bill Mounce has two free programs here, FlashWorks (for vocabulary) and ParseWorks (for learning parsing skills). He has both Mac and PC versions of this program here.

FlashCards - This is a free vocabulary program written in Java from CrossWire.

Wordbase Greek - Dag Kihlman, developer of the program has made some recent improvements to this older but useful program. It contains classical and biblical vocabulary lists and has a Latin option.

QuickMem Greek - There is no charge for this vocabulary program but a suggested $10 donation. The word lists are based on Bruce M. Metzger’s Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek covering all words occurring ten or more times in the New Testament.

Mastronarde Vocabulary Drill - This is a free online vocabulary drilling program. The vocabulary are organized by chapter in Mastronarde's text book.

Mastronarde English to Greek Vocabulary Quiz - This free online vocabulary drilling program tests how well students are learning vocabulary from English to Greek. The vocabulary is organized by chapter in Mastronarde's text book.

4. Noun & Adjective Declensions

1st Declension Grammar & Exercises - This link provides a PDF download of grammatical information as well as delightful exercises for study.

2nd Declension Grammar & Exercises - This link provides a PDF download of grammatical information as well as delightful exercises for study.

Peurifoy's 1st & 2nd Declension Helps - Peurifoy has nice charts with general spelling rules for the 1st & 2nd declensions.

Mastronarde Noun Drill Practise - This is a free program to work on noun parsing and forms. Click "start" then click on all of the correct morphological data for the displayed Greek word. Then click "check ans." (where the start button used to be)

Mastronarde Noun Paradigms - This is an exhaustive list of noun paradigms grouped by noun stems. This is a very helpful way to learn noun morphology.

Peurifoy's Adjective Helps - The PDF file has a nice summary of adjective syntax rules.

5. Pronouns

Online Greek Paradigm Quiz - This is an online quizzing program for pronouns and verbs. After signing up for a free account, simply select the parameters for the quiz and click "start the quiz."

Little Greek Pronouns - Jonathan Robie has a nice description of personal pronouns with audio capabilities on this page. The lesson on pronouns may be found here.

Peurifoy's Interrogative & Indefinite Pronoun Chart - He has a number of helpful examples following the chart.

Peurifoy's Uses of αὐτός - He has a nice list of NT examples of further uses of αὐτός.

Peurifoy's Demonstrative Pronouns - This is a great summary of demonstrative pronoun syntax and forms.

Peurifoy's Relative Pronoun Examples - He also has a nice list of relative pronoun examples.

Peurifoy's Complete Pronoun Summary - This sheet has all of the pronouns in one place.

Peurifoy's Preposition Chart - This has a very nice preposition graphic chart.

Mastronarde Pronoun Paradigms - This is a complete list of pronouns and how they decline.

6. Prepositions

Preposition Cartoon - This web page has a great cartoon for learning a number of Greek prepositions.

Mouse and Englishman's Preposition Chart - This is a helpful graphic for visualizing the meaning of a number of prepositions.

7. Verbs

Complete Verb Charts

IBG Verb Chart - This is a complete chart of the Greek verb. It has been written in Unicode so the information can be used in a number of applications.

λύω PDF verb chart - Helma Dik produced this is a nice compact chart that students can print out. You can see more of her charts here.

Peurifoy's Verb Tense Form Explanation - Peurifoy has a description of verb tense forms. Also see his verb overview.

Berkeley Principal Part Drills - This site has a nice drilling program for learning principal parts. They also have an online verb quizzing page.

Berkeley Verb Drill Page - This is a nice verb form drilling program. Click start then click on a box form type and then finish identifying the parsing for the verb. When you have completed your answer click "check answer" (where the start button used to be) to see how well do you did.

Mastronarde Verb Paradigms - This is an exhaustive list of verb paradigms grouped by verb stems. This is a very helpful way to learn verb morphology.

Online Greek Paradigm Quiz - This is an online quizzing program for pronouns and verbs. Simply select the parameters for the quiz and click "start the quiz."

Present Verb Forms

Little Greek Present Verbs - Jonathan Robie provides forms of regular omega verbs and epsilon contractions. He has another page with these verbs in context with audio capabilities.

Peurifoy's Primary Ending Chart - This is a PDF document with a good explanation of present tense forms and exercises.

Aorist Verb Forms

NTGreek on Aorist Forms - This page has a good presentation of different aorist stem forms.

Participle Forms

Genitive Absolute Article - Explanation on Perseus

NTGreek chart for Adverbial Participle Uses - This is a PDF with a nice list of ways participles may modify verbs. I would like to see this list divided into pre-verb positions and post-verb positions.

Contract Verb Forms

Contract Verb PDF Chart - Compact verb chart for contract verbs

MI Verb Forms

MI Verb (present) PDF Chart - δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵημι, ἵστημι, δείκνυμι

MI Verb (aorist) PDF Chart - ἔδωκα, ἔθηκα, ἧκα, ἔστην, ἔγνων

MI Verb (irregular) - εἰμί, εἶμι, φημί

Verb Clauses

Temporal and Conditional Clause Types - This is a great summary of various clause types.

Temporal Clauses - Although this chart doesn't exhaust all of the ways to produce temporal constructions, it is very helpful.

NT Gateway Conditional Clauses - The distinction between simple, general and contrary-to-fact conditions can be very confusing. Although, this page presents these categories using 1st class, 2nd class, etc., designations, it is comprehensive and links to a nice PDF chart for a summary.

Helma Dik's Conditional Clause Chart - This chart is a very nice summary with descriptive categories.

Verbal Aspect

Decker's Revision of Mounce Chapter 15 - Rodney Decker has an online article showing how he would revise Mounce's presentation of verbal aspect in his book Biblical Greek Beyond the Basics.

Aktionsart & the Present Tense - Here is another treatment of issues surrounding verbal aspect.

Runge's SBL paper on verbal aspect against Porter's theory - For decades the discussion of verbal aspect was framed by Porter's work on the subject often in contrast to Fanning and McKay. In 2009 Dr. Steven Runge reviewed the references that Porter cited in support of his argument and found some shocking internal difficulties for Porter's system. This is the link to Runge's SBL paper. Runge also has some follow up comments.

8. English Grammar

Peurifoy's Grammatical Terms - A nice PDF doc explaining many grammatical terms.

9. Greek Grammar Sites

Sites with Grammatical Lessons

Robert's Greek Grammar - This is Dr. J.W. Robert's primer for learning Biblical Greek. It is divided into chapters with exercises for the various elements of grammar. All of the exercises are translating from Greek to English and it is squarely a course that teaches about Greek (grammar) rather than a course for fluency. The grammatical categories are the current way of carving up grammar and one that I find atomistic. It is a strong grammar for accomplishing its goals.

Bill Mounce Recorded Audio Class - This is the most technically advanced currently available on the web. It is so nice to sit back and actually listen to the Greek lectures.

Little Greek Lessons - Dr. Robie has created a number of very good lessons. Many include great charts and audio files.

The Intelligent Person's Guide to Greek - William Harris's concise summary of ancient Greek grammar.

PDF Charts and Handouts -

Peurifoy's Handouts for Mounce's Grammar - Peurifoy has put together a very nice site with tools keyed to Mounce's grammar.

Cornell College Classical Studies - This site has some very helpful Greek resources.

In The Beginning Greek Course - Scroll down to see a table of contents for the lessons on this site.

Differences Between Classical and Hellenistic Greek - Jay Treat has a quick introduction to the changes that occurred in Greek between these two periods. This information is helpful if you are planning to start reading material outside the period of Greek that you have learned.

Greek Without Pain - Dr. Luschnig has materials here for an introduction to Greek grammar as well as study guide materials for her text, "An Introduction to Ancient Greek."

Grammatical Gateway Sites

New Testament Gateway - This valuable site by Dr. Mark Goodarce has great links and good summaries of the available resources.

Greek Grammar on the Web - K.U. Leuven has collected many good links to Greek grammar sites all over the world. On the American side of things there are many links to Biblical Greek sites as well as Classical Greek. - This is the site of Michael Palmer, whom I have had the pleasure to meet. Mr. Palmer is obviously dedicated to Greek education and has collected a number of very good links to equip others toward that end.

Greek Resources - from Anne Mahoney. Sometimes this site is not operational. In that case you can see her links here.

10. Teaching and Learning Greek Methods

The Art of Reading Latin: How to Teach It - This article also was written to apply to Greek studies.

How to Prepare a Reading Assignment - This brief article explains how to study reading passages to gain fluency.

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