Institute of Biblical Greek
About Us
Online & Local Classes Online & Local Classes Online & Local Classes Links to Greek Aids Recommended Books Software Online Forum

Posted: 3/15/16
Dr. Schwandt is currently on a sabbatical from offering Greek courses and reading groups. We are currently working on a way to offer the educational materials without the live component.


Exegetical Links Overview

The history of New Testament Exegesis is fraught with dramatic shifts from one method of exegesis to another. Last century word studies were all the rage. Now discourse analysis seems to have the spot light. In an effort to encourage balanced exegesis, this page offers links to sites which contain aids for four main areas of New Testament exegesis (lexical, morphological, grammatical, contextual). You can also check NT Gateway for articles, books, and other links on a variety of NT-related topics.

1. Lexical Aids (word studies)

2. Morphological Aids (spelling and forms)

3. Grammar and Syntax Aids (words working together)

4. Context, Literary, and Discourse Aids (discourse analysis)

5. Biblical Studies/Commentaries

6. Gospel of Mark; Web resources

1. Lexical Aids

Although this area of biblical studies has been abused recently, it still is a valuable part of exegetical research. The range of meaning which words have do influence the meaning of any passages. We simply must not make the mistake that meaning of any given passage is merely the sum of the meanings of the words in that passage. Word studies are the beginning of exegetical research, no the end.

Perseus New Testament - Oxford Mirror] [Berlin Mirror] This site has some nice lexicons for reference.

Idioms of the Greek New Testament -

Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (online) - Simply enter the word or the strongs number in the search box to look up the entry in the dictionary. If you have difficulty with their fonts, download and install their fonts pack.

2. Morphological Aids

Morphology is the study of forms (normally endings). These sites will help identify the the proper form (parsing) of a word in question. Unfortutaely, there aren't many sites which discuss the meanings of various word forms.

Perseus Parsing Tool - This tool will parse any Greek word. The tricky part is using their chart to type in the correct Roman letters which correspond to their Greek font. The little program which allows you to pick Greek letters from a palette doesn't work with eta and omega.

Unbound Bible - Greek Word Parser - Enter the word which is troubling you (according to their transliteration scheme) and the program will give you the possible grammatical parsings.

καλός conjugator program - This is a freeware program that will conjugate verbs.

Perseus New Testament - This site displays the Westcot-Hort Greek NT and will parse the Greek words as you click on them. There are many different display options in order to see the Greek text. Click on "Configure display" in the upper left corner to adjust the language and font. - (NA26)- You have your choice of displaying GNT passages in Symbol font, images, Athena font, Unicode (Palatino Linotype), or all caps. Includes one-click parsing and definitions.

3. Grammar and Syntax Aids

The next level of linguistic meaning is how word relate to each other. This is called syntax. A number of Grammars discuss this type of meaning. Of course many of these grammars also spend a good amount of space disussing the meanings of morphology.

Burton's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of NT Greek - A standard text fully online. It is designed to assist students in the task of translating the Greek New Testament into English forms of thought and expression. As a consequence, this exegetical grammar is full of quotations from the New Testament: to read them in Greek you need this "Bwgrkl" True Type Font.

Notes from Albert Pietersma - Dr. Pietersam has some great Greek handouts online. I especially appreciated #12.

Greek NT Diagrams - This site condains many PDFs of diagrams of many NT passages.

Reading Notes for New Testament Translation - Contains reading notes for quite a few books of the New Testament. Microsoft Word Format. A free font must be dowloaded.

Reading Notes on the Gospels -

Grammatical Terms Online Glossary - A handy resource.

Mounce and Wallace Grammars Complied - Great New Testament grammatical resource.

A Brief Introduction to NT Greek by Samuel Green - A free pdf download of a 128 page beginning grammar including lessons and a lexicon. The answer key is also available.

Greek In A Nutshell - A free pdf download of 30 pages of New Testament selections with interlinear and extensive translation notes. It also has mophological charts.

A Short Syntax of NT Greek by H.P.V. Nunn - The book begins with a helpful overview of English grammar and a useful glossary of grammatical terms that prepares the student for the discussions in syntax to follow.

Smyth, Greek Grammar - This is the standard classical Greek grammar. The full book is online here.

Goodwin, Greek Grammar - The brother of Symth's work can be dowloaded in one big PDF from this site.

4. Discourse Analysis

The final level of meaning involves large pieces of text. This would include everything from the meaning of broad literaty structure to the deep structure of speech-acts. Basically, this the meaning of what may be communicated in the larger form and style of what is said, or may be what is clearly implied instead of explicitely stated. Studies in this area of exegesis are now commonly called discourse analysis.

Analyzing Discourse Manual - This is a nice text currently available in PDF while it is in prepub status.

Discourse Analysis in I Corinthians - This is a dissertation by Ralph Terry

SIL Bibliography on Discourse Analysis - A nice list of books and author information dealing with the subjects. No texts or specific information on DA is available here.

5. Biblical Studies/Commentary

Here are some links that will help you more generally with exegesis, including commentaries and other gateway sites for more resources.

Luther Seminary's Bible Tutor - Luther Seminary's site has links to commentary and other learning tools for every book of the Bible.

NT Gateway - Run by Dr Mark Goodacre of Duke University, NT Gateway is great for books, articles, discussion lists, and other resources for New Testament study, organized topically.

6. Gospel of Mark

Although this area of biblical studies has been abused recently, it still is a valuable part of exegetical research. The range of meaning which words have do influence the meaning of any passages. We simply must not make the mistake that meaning of any given passage is merely the sum of the meanings of the words in that passage. Word studies are the beginning of exegetical research, no the end.

Gateway Sites

The Text This Week: Mark - Jenee Woodard has developed a great page with a considerable number of well organized links that even include book and article reviews.

World Wide Study Bible; Mark - This site has a number of links to various resources on Mark. Most of these (if not all) have hotlinks at

Bibliographies for the Gospel of Mark

Waterloo Luteran Seminary - A Bibliography for Preachers of Mark's Gospel

Overviews, Introductions and Outline for the Gospel of Mark

BibleNotes; Mark - An interesting collection of historical details surmised from passages within the gospel

Catholic Encyclopedia; Mark - This is a lengthy and well organized introuction to the gospel.

Grant; Introduction to Mark - A Historical Introduction to the New Testament by Robert M. Grant

Heard; Introducation to Mark - An Introduction to the New Testament by Richard Heard. This is chapter 7 in his introducation to the bible.

Johnson's Commentary on Mark - This page is a brief introduction to Mark and his online commentary.

Loader; An Introduction to Mark for Preachers - by William R.G. Loader, Murdoch University, Australia.

Luther Seminary: Mark - This is a biref summary of the gospel that devides the gospel into two parts.
Mark 1:1--8:26 recounts the beginning of Jesus' ministry
Mark 8:27-16:8 completes Jesus' ministry and passion

Malick; Introduction to Mark - This is a brief outline that can be used as an introduction to the gospel. He also has an outline of the gospel itself.

New American Bible: Mark - The page has a summary with an outline for the Gospel.

Smith; Introduction and Outline - Professor Barry D. Smith, Atlantic Baptist University has developed this thorough introduction to the issues surrounding the Gospel of Mark.

Walk Through the Bible; Mark - A simple introduction and outline to the gospel

Wallace; Introduction, Argument, and Outline to Mark - Daniel Wallace provides a quite thorough introduction and treatment online.

Wansbrough; Introduction to Mark - You can download a booklet by Dom Henry Wansbrough in MS Word format. It is a detailed historical & literary introductory study.

Wikipedia; The Gospel of Mark - A well organized collection of basic information.

Commentaries for the Gospel of Mark Bible Commentary - Robert Nguyen Cramer has a chapter by chapter textual commentary that focuses on translation issues.

Conrad Commentary - Carl Conrad, a notable Greek scholar has a nice online commentary.

Constable Commentary - 200 page pdf file of Expository Notes, Dr. Thomas L. Constable, Dallas Theological Seminary, 2005 edition.

Edwards, Dwight; The Letter of Mark - Dwight Edwards was pastor of Grace Bible Church in College Station, Texas. Dwight attended Dallas Theological Seminary and has pastored in College Station for over 18 years.

Geneva Study Bible Commentary (Mark) -

Grant; The Earliest Gospel - The full text of this book is available online.

Jamieson Fausset Brown Commentary (Mark) -

John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament -

John Gill's Exposition of the Bible (Mark) -

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes (Mark) -

Johnson's Commentary: Mark - This is a commentary that works verse by verse through the gospel.

Matthew Henry Commentary (Mark) -

People's New Testament Commentary (Mark) -

Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament (Mark) -

Turton's Historical Commentary on the Gospel of Mark - "a complete verse-by-verse commentary on the Gospel of Mark, focusing on the historicity of people, places, events, and sayings in the world of the Gospel of Mark."

Windows Into the World of Jesus (Mark) - Daniel P. Schrock has a nice site the works through major issues in Mark

Discussion Groups for the Gospel of Mark

Kata Markon - Kata Markon (The Gospel of Mark Discussion List) is a moderated academic e-list dedicated to the scholarly discussion and evaluation of critical questions surrounding the Gospel according to Mark. Here is a link to the archives.

Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) Mark Section

The Mark Group of the Society of Biblical Literature - Web page of the Mark Group of the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL). The mission of the SBL is to foster biblical scholarship. As a subunit of the SBL the mission of the Mark Group is to foster research on the Gospel of Mark.

If you think this site is helpful,
you can help us make it better.

Amazon Logo