Institute of Biblical Greek
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Course Set Up

Intro. Part I
Intro. Part II
Intro. Part III
Intro. Part IV

Chapter 1
ΔΙΚΑΙΟΠΟΛΙΣ (α)
ΔΙΚΑΙΟΠΟΛΙΣ (β)

Chapter 2
Ο ΞΑΝΘΙΑΣ (α)
Ο ΞΑΝΘΙΑΣ (β)

Chapter 3
Ο ΑΡΟΤΟΣ (α)
Ο ΑΡΟΤΟΣ (β)

Chapter 4
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΗΙ ΚΡΗΝΗΙ (α)
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΗΙ ΚΡΗΝΗΙ (β)

Chapter 5
Ο ΛΥΚΟΣ (α)
Ο ΛΥΚΟΣ (β)

Vocab Review
English to Greek

Chapter 6
Ο ΜΥΘΟΣ (α)
Ο ΜΥΘΟΣ (β)

Chapter 7
Ο ΚΥΚΛΩΨ (α)
Ο ΚΥΚΛΩΨ (β)

Chapter 8
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟ ΑΣΤΥ (α)
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟ ΑΣΤΥ (β)

Chapter 9
Η ΠΑΝΗΓΥΡΙΣ (α)
Η ΠΑΝΗΓΥΡΙΣ (β)

Chapter 10
Η ΣΥΜΦΟΡΑ (α)
Η ΣΥΜΦΟΡΑ (β)

Chapter 11
Ο ΙΑΤΡΟΣ (α)
Ο ΙΑΤΡΟΣ (β)

Chapter 12
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΝ ΠΕΙΡΑΙΑ (α)
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΝ ΠΕΙΡΑΙΑ (β)

Chapter 13
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΗΝ ΣΑΛΑΜΙΝΑ (α)
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΗΝ ΣΑΛΑΜΙΝΑ (β)

Chapter 14
Η ΕΝ ΤΑΙΣ ΘΕΡΜΟΠΥΛΑΙΣ (α)
Η ΕΝ ΤΑΙΣ ΘΕΡΜΟΠΥΛΑΙΣ (β)

Chapter 15
Η ΕΝ ΤΗΙ ΣΑΛΑΜΙΝΙ ΜΑΧΗ (α)
Η ΕΝ ΤΗΙ ΣΑΛΑΜΙΝΙ ΜΑΧΗ (β)

Chapter 16
ΜΕΤΑ ΤΗΝ ΕΝ ΤΗΙ ΣΑΛΑΜΙΝΙ ΜΑΧΗΝ (α)
ΜΕΤΑ ΤΗΝ ΕΝ ΤΗΙ ΣΑΛΑΜΙΝΙ ΜΑΧΗΝ (β)

Chapter 17
Η ΕΠΙΔΑΥΡΟΣ (α)
Η ΕΠΙΔΑΥΡΟΣ (β)

Chapter 18
Ο ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΣ (α)
Ο ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΣ (β)

Chapter 19 & 20
Ο ΝΟΣΤΟΣ (α)
Ο ΝΟΣΤΟΣ (β)
Ο ΝΟΣΤΟΣ (γ)
Ο ΝΟΣΤΟΣ (δ)

Chapter 21
Η ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ (α)
Η ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ (β)

Chapter 22
Η ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΙΣ (α)
Η ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΙΣ (β)

Chapter 23
Η ΕΣΒΟΛΗ (α)
Η ΕΣΒΟΛΗ (β)

Chapter 24
ΕΝ ΔΙΔΑΣΚΑΛΩΝ (α)
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© Copyright
1998-present

Athenaze

Book 1 - Introduction Part II

1. Pronunciation Overview

2. Chapter Material

Alphabet

Breathings

Diphthongs

Long Vowel Digraphs

Paired Consonants

Consonant Sounds

Accents

3. Video for this Section

4. Exercises

The following is a list of resourses available to those who have enrolled in the IBG web class or have purchased a web class unit containing this chapter. If you have registered for the course please log in and these resources will become available to you.

5. Recording of the Paragraph

6. Introduction Quiz



Pronunciation Overview

Ever since Erasmus recommended reconstructing a historical method of pronouncing Classical Greek there has been an ever increasing variety of Ancient Greek pronunciation methods. In the past century there seems to have been a dramatic increase in the number of academic pronunciation schemes. Most of these have drifted from Erasmus' principal of historical reconstruction to a principle of pedagogical pragmatics. The result is that most Academic pronunciation methods (and they are numerous, all existing under the the label, Erasmian Pronunciation) have never existed at any point of Greek language history.

Athenaze's pronunciation system is one of the most historically oriented systems available (for the Classical Greek period of time). The most questionable sound is the one it prescribes for omega. Since BiblicalGreek.org promotes the study of all forms of Ancient Greek but emphasizes the importance and role of Biblical Greek, we are more committed to the Roman (or Biblical) period of time and our additional resources will use a pronunciation system associated with that period. Therefore the material contained in this section will be different than the pronunciation material in Athenaze. Further all of the recordings and audio files will use a reconstructed Biblical Greek pronunciation system rather than a reconstructed Classical Greek pronunciation system. If a classicist would like to generate audio files using the Athenaze system for us we would gladly publish them along side the Historic Biblical audio files.

One of the side benefits of using a historical biblical system of pronunciation is that it is similar enough to Erasmian conventions that it is intelligible in academic circles and is close enough to the Modern Greek system that you only have to remember to change one vowel sound to be intelligible in Modern Greece as well as use Modern Greek resources.

Randall Buth who offer's immersion courses in Greek and Hebrew in Israel, wrote a fine research paper developing and supporting this method of Historical Biblical Greek pronunciation. It is well worth reading.

Here is the link to his Notes on the Pronunciation System of Koine Greek, Imperial Koine Pronunciation.

Pronunciation Charts

Again this chart differs from the one in Athenaze opting for a historical biblical Greek pronunciation system. Please refer to the pronunciation overview and Randall Buth's paper for explanations.

Alphabet

Letter Name Transliteration Rule
Pronunciation example (transliteration)
Α α ἄλφα
a
= a
Ἄτλας (Atlas)
Β β βῆτα
b
="v" (not the hard stop "b")
Βάκχος (Bacchos)
Γ γ γάμμα
g
Gamma has three possible sounds (English also has three sounds for "g", which you can hear in the English derivatives of these examples.)
γλῶσσα (glossa) a gurgle sound before consonants and back vowel sounds (u, o, α)
γένεσις (genesis) an English "y" sound before front vowel sounds (i, y, e, ε)
φθόγγος (phthongos) the "ng" sound before another guttural γ, κ, ξ, χ )
Δ δ δέλτα
d
= voiced "th" (not the hard stop "d")
Δημήτηρ (Dēmētēr)
Ε ε ἒ ψῑλόν
e
= ε
Ἑρμῆς (Hermēs)
Ζ ζ ζῆτα
z
= z
Ζεύς (Zeus)
Η η ἧτα
ē
= e (which is the symbol for the "a" sound in "chaotic" vs. "bait" which a diphthong finishing with an /i/ sound.)
Ἥρᾱ (Hēra)
Θ θ θῆτα
th
= unvoiced "th" (in contrast to δ)
θάνατος (thanatos)
Ι ι ἰῶτα
i
= i as in ski (short forms may be pronounced i as in it)
Ἶρις (Iris)
Κ κ κάππα
k
= k
Καλλιόπη (Calliopē)
Λ λ λάμβδα
l
= l
λόγος (logos)
Μ μ μῦ
m
= m
μίδας (Midas)
Ν ν νῦ
n
= n
νίκη (nikē)
Ξ ξ ξῖ
x
= x (ks)
ξένος (xenos)
Ο ο ὂ μῑκρόν
o
= o without the final "u" sound of the American "o"
ὀρθός (orthos)
Π π πῖ
p
= p
Ποσειδῶν (Poseidōn)
Ρ ρ ῥῶ
rh
= a trilled or flipped r
ῥητορική (rhetoricē)
Σ σ/ς σίγμα
s
= s (but z before vocalized consonants β, γ, δ, μ)(written ς when the last letter of a word)
σοφία (sophia)
Τ τ ταῦ
t
= t
τόπος (topos)
Υ υ ὖ ψῑλόν
y
= /y/ sound (ü in French tü)
ὑπέρ (hyper)
Φ φ φῖ
ph
= f
φοβία (phobia)
Χ χ χῖ
ch
Like Gamma, Chi changes its sound when it flowed by front or back sounds.
χρόνος (Chronos) ch as is the Scottish loch before consonants and back vowel sounds (u, o, α)
χείρ (cheir)= h sound before front vowel sounds (i, y, e, ε)
Ψ ψ ψῖ
ps
= ps
ψυχή (psychē)
Ω ω ὦ μέγα
ō
= o without the final "u" sound of the American "o"
Ὠρίων (Ōriōn)

Breathings

Strike the first paragraph under the heading "Breathings." The breath mark will be considered part of the correct spelling so the rough and smooth breathing marks are something to be learned along with the spelling of all words that begin with a vowel and the letter rho (an initial υ or ρ will always have a rough breathing mark.) However there is no distinction in pronunciation between them (similar to the English homonyms hour and our.)

Diphthongs

By biblical times nearly all vowel combinations (vowel digraphs) had all become monophthongs which are be covered together in the long vowel digraph section. The only Greek diphthongs in biblical times are υι and the monograph, η. It starts with an ĕ sound and finishes with and ee sound.

Long Vowel Digraphs

Vowle Digraphs can be separated into two groups. Those that have some vowel prior to "ι" or prior to "υ". Realizing this can greatly reduce the possiblities of whether two consecutive vowels are a digraph or not.

Digraph Example
Words
Pronunciation
αι αἰγίς = e as in get
ει εἴκοσι = ei as in receive
οι οἰκονομίᾱ = ü as in French tü
αυ αὐτοκρατής, αὐτουργός = av as in "Ave Maria" prior to voiced letters, but "af" as in "off" prior to unvoiced letters
ευ εὐγενής,
εὐχαριστῶ
= ev as in "ever" prior to voiced letters, but "ef "as in the British way of saying "lieutenant" prior to unvoiced letters
ηυ ηὕρηκα,
ηὐτομᾰτισμένως
= ev as in "ever" prior to voiced letters, but "ef "as in the British way of saying "lieutenant" prior to unvoiced letters
ου οὔτις = ou as in soup

Paired Consonants

The only thing to add to this section is pragmatic way of creating voiced stops. In the classical period β, δ, and γ were all voiced stops like the English b, d, and g. But over time these sounds were held out for longer durations. We call these types of sound fricatives. For example the English b is a voiced stop, but the English v is the same sound just the fricative version. We also have fricative versions of voiceless letters. For example, the English p is a voiceless stop (BTW the only difference between "b" and "p" is the presence or absence of voice.). The fricative version of "p" is "f".

Once β, δ, and γ became fricatives this left a void for voiced stops. Since the only difference between unvoiced and voiced stops is the presence or absence of voice. Sometimes a really voicey letter like the nasals μ and ν would bleed into a following unvoiced stop and thereby give it some voice to produce the missing sound. So μπ would sound like b (the classical β), ντ would sound like d (the classical δ), νκ would sound like k (the classical γ). This would even hold true between words so τὸν κύριον would sound like "tōn güriōn".

Consonant Sounds

Stops are sounds where the air carrying the sound travels directly over the center of the tongue. We can modify the sound with the back of our mouths (these types of sounds are called gutturals or velars), our teeth (dentals), or our lips (labials). We can also choose to add our voice to any of these sounds while dragging them out over time (fricative) or chopping them rather short (stop). The matrix of these combinations looks like this and if often called the square of stops.

Voiced Stop
Voiced Fricative
Voiceless Stop
Voiceless Fricative
double consonant with σ
Labials
μπ
β
π
φ
ψ (replaces labial followed by σ)
Dentals
ντ
δ
τ
θ
ζ (all dentals including ζ will drop out when followed by σ)
Gutterals
νκ
γ
κ
χ
ξ (replaces gutteral followed by σ)

It is crucial to memorize this chart since principals of euphony applied to this chart will explain most spelling changes.

Accents

It should be noted that learning the accenting system is really about as complicated as learning the scenarios that can force a double play in baseball. Not only will such knowledge aid composition and conversation, it can also tip you off to some of the more difficult tense forms.

Here are the general rules for accenting that Rouse provides on Page 3 of his grammar.

The acute accent must fall on one of the last three syllables. If the last have a long vowel, on one of the last two. On final syllables, except last in a sentence, then the acute accent is written as grave.

The circumflex must fall on one of the last two syllables, and it cannot stand before a long vowel or diphthong. It can only stand on a long vowel or diphthong, as it implies contraction.

Learn these general rules for now and then we will refine them in Chapter 1. If you would like to learn everything about accents and how to compose Greek using them please refer to the following videos:

#1 General Accent Principles

#2 Accenting Non Verbs

#3 Accenting Verbs

#4 Accenting with Enclitics and Proclitics

Video with further explanation regarding the alphabet

This introduction correlates to the material in the introducation Part 2 of Athenaze Book 1.

The Camtasia Studio video content presented here requires JavaScript to be enabled and the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player. If you are you using a browser with JavaScript disabled please enable it now. Otherwise, please update your version of the free Adobe Flash Player by downloading here.

Exercises

1) Memorize saying the alphabet in order (quickly).

2) Memorize which vowels are always short, which are alwasy long, and which can be long or short.

3) Memorize the square of stops (be able to reproduce it on demand)

4) Memorize the general accenting rules.

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